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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the operating system. For the kernel, see Linux kernel.
Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux[1]
Company /developer Many
Programmed in Various (Notably C andAssembly)
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Free and open source software
Initial release 1991
Latest stable release Kernel: 3.7.6 [edit] (February 4, 2013; 2 days ago)[2] [±]
Latest unstable release

Kernel: 3.8-rc6 (February 1, 2013; 5 days ago)[3]

Marketing target Personal computers, embedded devices, mobile devices, servers
Availablelanguage(s) Multilingual
Availableprogramming languages(s) Many
Supported platforms AlphaARMAVR32,BlackfinC6xETRAX CRISFR-VH8/300,HexagonItanium,M32Rm68k,MicroblazeMIPS,MN103OpenRISCPA-RISCPowerPCs390,S+coreSuperH,SPARCTILE64,Unicore32x86Xtensa
Kernel type Monolithic
Userland Various
Default user interface Many
License Many[4] ("Linux" trademark owned byLinus Torvalds[5] and administered by theLinux Mark Institute)

Linux (Listeni/ˈlɪnəks/ lin-əks[6][7] or /ˈlɪnʊks/ lin-uuks)[8][9][10] is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds.[11][12]

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86-based personal computers. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers and supercomputers:[13][14][15][16] more than 90% of today's 500 fastest supercomputers run some variant of Linux,[17] including the 10 fastest.[18] Linux also runs on embedded systems (devices where the operating system is typically built into the firmware and highly tailored to the system) such as mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, televisions[19][20] and video game consoles; theAndroid system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel.

The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration: the underlying source code may be used, modified, and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu and Linux Mint), Fedora (and its derivatives such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux and CentOS), Mandriva/MageiaOpenSUSE, and Arch Linux. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel, supporting utilities andlibraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use.

A distribution oriented toward desktop use will typically include the X Window System and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less powerful computers. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit all graphical environments from the standard install and instead include other software such as the Apache HTTP Server and an SSH server such as OpenSSH. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. Applications commonly used with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web browser, the LibreOffice office application suite, and the GIMP image editor.

Since the main supporting user space system tools and libraries originated in the GNU Project, initiated in 1983 by Richard Stallman, the Free Software Foundation prefers the name GNU/Linux.[21][22]

Brief description: 1991 -->